Fuel Cells Future Fuel 2020 Explained
Fuel Cells! Nowadays petrol and diesel are used as fuel for vehicles and other purposes. But these fuels are minimal one day these fuels will be distinct. Since the number of cars (vehicles) increasing day by day on the road, people used more fuels. Because of this, the consumption of fuel has been an increase. Due to the high-level consumption of fuel. The pollution, which is producing from a vehicle, is very hazardous to human life as well as the environment. To deal with this problem, our scientist is working on an alternative source of Diesel and Petrol fuels.
A fuel cell generates electricity through a chemical reaction between a source fuel and an oxidant. It is a type of generator that is not dependent on any other kind of fuel because it runs on Hydrogen. The output which we get from the fuel cell is immaculate and eco-friendly to our environment and human life. Fuel cells can be used as a source of battery, which can power up anything from cars to mobile phones as well as space vehicles. Fuel cells give numerous advantages over conventional power sources, which we will discuss soon. The fuel cells were invented in 1838.
Types of Fuel Cells
Polymer electrolyte membrane
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells also called Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells. It delivers excellent power density and offers the advantages of low weight and volume compared to other fuel cells. It need only Hydrogen, oxygen from the air, and water to function.
Alkaline fuel Cells
Alkaline fuel cells are one of the commercial types of fuel cells. The name of the alkaline fuel cell is derived from alkalis that are used as electrolytes. It has a quite simple design. Pure Hydrogen used as fuel, and pure oxygen is used for oxidizer to induce an electrochemical reaction.
Phosphoric acid fuel cells
In the Phosphoric acid fuel cell, the electrolyte we used is the phosphoric acid solution. The efficiency of the phosphoric acid fuel cell is 40% to 80%. It can be operated at a temperature of 150°C to 200°C. The phosphoric acid cell can produce energy up to 200 KW.
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Solid oxide fuel cells are characterized by it use solid oxide material as an electrolyte. A solid oxide fuel cell is a device which oxidizes fuel and converts it into electrical energy. Solid oxide fuel cells use a solid oxide electrolyte to transfer negative oxygen ions from the cathode to the anode. It works at very high temperatures, typically between 500 °C to 1,000 °C. Solid oxide fuel cells have a broad class of uses, from use as auxiliary power units in vehicles to stationary power generation, with the outputs of 100 W to 2 MW.
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Proton-exchange fuel cells are further categorized in Direct methanol fuel cells in which methanol is used as a fuel. The main advantage of Direct methanol fuel cells is the ease of transport of methanol. The standard operating temperatures are in the range of 50 °C to120 °C.
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
The most significant of molten carbonate fuel cell is that it can operate 600 °C above. Molten carbonate fuel cells are developed for electrical utility, military purposes, and other industrial purposes from natural gas, biogas, and coal-based power plant.
Fuel Cells Working
Every fuel cells contain an anode and cathode. Both are called electrodes. Both electrodes help the fuel cell to react with respective chemical reaction, to make it possible to produce electrical energy. In electrolytes, the reaction takes place commonly from the anode to the cathode and vice versa. The electrolytes act as a catalyst in fuel cells. And it makes the reaction faster and smooth.
Advantages Of Fuel Cells
Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy without harming nature and without the combustion process.
Fuel cells can produce high efficiencies in energy exchange terms, primarily where the waste heat from the battery is utilized in a cogeneration situation.
Fuel cells, due to their nature of the process, are extremely quiet in operation. This method allows fuel cells to be used in residential or built-up areas where noise pollution is undesirable.
No Oil Needed
In fuel cell hydrogen itself is used as a source, there is no need for external sources like oil or gas.
Better Fuel Efficiency
The efficiency of the fuel cell is more as compared to fossil fuel. The fuel cells are mode durable for high efficiency of source, and it doesn’t give out any harmful bi-products.
Disadvantages Of Fuel Cells
It is expensive
While widely available, Hydrogen is costly. A big reason for this is that it takes a lot of time to separate the element from others. If this process were straightforward, then a lot would have been preparing it with relative ease, but it’s not.
Now hydrogen cells are being used to power hybrid cars, and it’s still not an open-source of fuel for everyone until the technology is developed that can make the whole manner a lot easier, then hydrogen energy will remain to be an expensive choice.
It isn’t effortless to store
Hydrogen is very difficult to move around. When talking about oil, that element can be sent through pipelines. When handling coal, that can be easily carried off on the back of trucks. But when talking about Hydrogen, just moving even small quantities is a costly matter. For that reason alone, the transportation and accommodation of such a substance are deemed impractical.
It is not easy to replace the existing Infrastructure
Gasoline is being broadly used to this day. And as of the moment, due to lack of Infrastructure that can promote Hydrogen as a fuel. This is why it becomes costly to think about replacing gasoline. Also, cars need to be refitted to accommodate Hydrogen as fuel.
It is highly flammable.
Since it is an excellent source of fuel, Hydrogen can be highly flammable. It is on the bulletin generally for its many numbers of risks. Hydrogen gas burns in air at enormous concentrations.
It is dependent on fossil fuels.
Hydrogen energy is renewable and has the least environmental impact; other non-renewable sources such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas are required to separate it from oxygen.
Fuel Cells Application
- Two- and three-wheeler vehicles such as scooters
- Buses and trucks
- Ferries and smaller boats
- Human-crewed light aircraft
- And Other Uses