Fiber Optic Cable Explained In Full Details

Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber optic cable is a high-speed information transmission mechanism. It includes a tiny glass or plastic filaments that carry light beams. Digital data is sent through the cable via accelerated pulses of light.

The receiving end of a fiber optic transmission decodes the light pulses into binary numbers, which can be read by a computer.

Fiber optic cables have changed the world of network communication ever since their origin nearly four decades before.

Fiber optics is a medium in which information passes from one location to another using light waves. The advantage of a fiber network is that it can transmit vast numbers of data in single cable pair (separate send receive cables for single-mode fiber) or cable that handles both send and receive at the same time, which is called multimode.

Fiber optic cables are thin tubes of glass or even some types of plastic glass polymers, with layers of different materials to keep the signal inside the cable and preserve it from loss or outside interference. Light waves bounce along inside the glass from the transmitter to the receiver, which decodes the light into helpful information—Google Optical Fiber on an excellent description of how it all works.

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Uses Of Fiber Optics Cable


As technology has been upgrading day by the communication system also has been changed. To transmit a large amount of data at very high-speed fiber optics cable are used. As compared to other sending forms of medium fiber optics, cables are light in weight, less bulky, transmit data faster, and flexibility.


As I mentioned above that the technology is upgrading day by day, but there is some gadget that we can replace with a new one.

You may have noticed in a company that these days the telephone is used, why so? Call using telephone within your country or a foreign country; the fiber optic cable make the task easy, the communication makes clear and faster without any delay or slowdown on either side.

Television Cables

Over the past, the television has spread out radically and also had upgraded in high definition (HD). For transmitting data for high definition fiber optics cable is taken as use. Because the fiber optics cable has higher bandwidth and speed. Also, as compared to copper wire to the same quantity, the fiber optics cable is cheaper.

Surgery and Dentistry (Medical)

Optical fiber communication is an essential piece of non-intrusive surgical methods, commonly known as endoscopy.

Fiber optic cables are broadly used in the fields of medicine and research. Fiber optics cable is also used in microscopy and biomedical research.

Fiber optics cable is used as Light guides, as lasers for surgeries or imaging tools. In such applications, a bright light is used to light up the operation area within the body, making it possible to decrease the number and size of cuts made. 

Mechanical field

In the mechanical field, there is someplace where it is not easy for the engineer to reach out there. In this case, the fiber optic cable is being used. It allows them to find the fault quickly and comfortably.

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The Composition Material In Fiber Optics Cable

  1. Corning optical fiber is an amorphous noncrystalline material made of pure fused silica and Germania dopant.
  2. Plastic optical fiber is usually composed of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA).
  3. Experimental textures are made of other materials such as sapphire.
  4. Coatings are generally proprietary to the manufacturer but are often acrylate or polyimide-based.
  5. The main function of the layer is to protect the glass fiber from defects.

Characteristic Of Fiber Optics Cable

Optical Characteristics

  • Single-mode fibre optimized at 1,310 and/or 1,550nm.
  • Other fiber types/specifications can be offered upon request.

Mechanical Characteristics

  • Pulling force (maximum): 1,000N
  • Bending radius (minimum):
  • Full load – 20 x cable diameter
  • No-load – 10 x cable diameter

Environmental Characteristics

  • Operating temperature: -30°C, +70°C
  • Storage temperature: -20°C, +70°C
  • Installation temperature: -10°C, +60°C

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Advantages of Fiber Optics Cable

There are many advantages of Fiber Optics Cable; here are some of the advantages of fiber optics cable are mentioned.


More bandwidth more data transfer, In fiber optics cable the bandwidth is more significant than other cables. The transmission power is increased due to the bandwidth of the fiber optics cables.

Low Power Loss

In the transmission of the data through Optical Fiber, it offers low power consumption which allows it to transmit data for longer distance. 


Optical fiber has higher tensile durability than copper or steel fibers of the same width. It is adjustable, bends easily, and does not corrode.


The raw substances for glass are abundant, unlike copper. The availability indicates glass can be manufactured more inexpensively than copper.


Fiber optic cables are much lighter and more fragile than metal wires. It holds less space with cables of the same data capacity as compared to other cables. The lighter weight makes Fiber Optics cable more convenient to install.


As compared to copper, a fiber optic cable has approximately 4.5 times as much capacity as the wire cable has and a cross-sectional area that is 30 times shorter.


In the military, the sensitive data is transmitted through fiber optics cable since it is more secure than others. They do not radiate electromagnetic energy because of this data can not be tap. It is the most reliable medium available for transferring sensitive data.

Disadvantages Of Fiber Optics Cable

Difficult to Join

Optical fibers are hard to join, and there is the loss of the light in fiber optics cable due to scattering. It has a limited physical cure for the wire. It can not be bent too much.

Costly to Install

The fiber optics cables are more expensive to install, and they have to be installed by the professionals. They are not as strong as the other wires. A specific test kit is often required for the optical fiber.


  • How does Fiber optic cable transmit data?

    Information travels in the form of a light signal. Using a principle known as “Total Internal Reflection.” The data first converted into an electrical signal, and then it modulated through a modem to the beam of a laser light device so that the intensity of the light changes with the amplitude (frequency) of the electrical signal, and transmitted through the optical fiber

  • How many types of fiber optic cables are there?

    There are three types of fiber optics cable:- 
    3)Plastic optical fiber

  • What are the three components of a fiber optic cable?

    The three-component of a fiber optic cable is:-

  • Who discovered fiber optic? Or Who is the father of optical fiber?

    Narinder Singh Kapany, He is known as the father of optic fiber. He is born in India and works as an American physicist.

  • What is the principle of optical Fibre?

    The optic fiber works on the principle of Total Internal Reflection by which light signals are transmitted from one place to another with a minor loss of energy.

  • What are the applications of fiber optics?

    Data Storage

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